COVID-19 Vaccine Boosters for Young Adults: A Risk-Benefit Assessment and Five Ethical Arguments against Mandates at Universities

COVID-19 Vaccine Boosters for Young Adults: A Risk-Benefit Assessment and Five Ethical Arguments against Mandates at Universities

Bardosh, K., Krug, A., Jamrozik, E., Lemmens, T., Keshavjee, S., Prasad, V., … & Høeg, T. B. (2022). COVID-19 vaccine boosters for young adults: a risk benefit assessment and ethical analysis of mandate policies at universities. Journal of Medical Ethics. Available:

50 Pages

Posted: 12 Sep 2022

Last revised: 12 Dec 2022

Kevin Bardosh
University of Washington; University of Edinburgh – Edinburgh Medical School

Allison Krug
Artemis Biomedical Communications LLC

Euzebiusz Jamrozik
University of Oxford

Trudo Lemmens
University of Toronto – Faculty of Law

Salmaan Keshavjee
Harvard University – Harvard Medical School

Vinay Prasad
University of California, San Francisco (UCSF)

Martin A. Makary
Johns Hopkins University – Department of Surgery

Stefan Baral
Johns Hopkins University – Department of Epidemiology

Tracy Beth Høeg

Florida Department of Health; Sierra Nevada Memorial Hospital
Date Written: August 31, 2022


Students at North American universities risk disenrollment due to third dose COVID-19 vaccine mandates. We present a risk-benefit assessment of boosters in this age group and provide five ethical arguments against mandates. We estimate that 22,000 – 30,000 previously uninfected adults aged 18-29 must be boosted with an mRNA vaccine to prevent one COVID-19 hospitalisation. Using CDC and sponsor-reported adverse event data, we find that booster mandates may cause a net expected harm: per COVID-19 hospitalisation prevented in previously uninfected young adults, we anticipate 18 to 98 serious adverse events, including 1.7 to 3.0 booster-associated myocarditis cases in males, and 1,373 to 3,234 cases of grade ≥3 reactogenicity which interferes with daily activities. Given the high prevalence of post-infection immunity, this risk-benefit profile is even less favourable. University booster mandates are unethical because: 1) no formal risk-benefit assessment exists for this age group; 2) vaccine mandates may result in a net expected harm to individual young people; 3) mandates are not proportionate: expected harms are not outweighed by public health benefits given the modest and transient effectiveness of vaccines against transmission; 4) US mandates violate the reciprocity principle because rare serious vaccine-related harms will not be reliably compensated due to gaps in current vaccine injury schemes; and 5) mandates create wider social harms. We consider counter-arguments such as a desire for socialisation and safety and show that such arguments lack scientific and/or ethical support. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our analysis for current 2-dose COVID-19 vaccine mandates in North America.

January 15, 2023. Tags: , , , , . COVID-19. Leave a comment.

A person in New York has become paralyzed because their idiotic parents never got them vaccinated for polio

How polio came back to New York for the first time in decades, silently spread and left a patient paralyzed

By Spencer Kimball

October 4, 2022

An unvaccinated adult suffered paralysis in June from polio, the first case in New York since 1990.

Wastewater surveillance later found the virus had been spreading silently in the New York City area for months.

The origin of the virus is still under investigation, but samples in New York are genetically linked to polioviruses found in London and Jerusalem wastewater.

When a young adult in a New York City suburb visited an emergency department in June after experiencing weakness in their lower legs, the shocking diagnosis would lead local officials to declare a health emergency in New York and put authorities across the U.S. and around the world on a state of alert.

The individual, a resident of Rockland County, had suffered from a fever, a stiff neck, back and abdominal pain as well as constipation for five days. The patient was hospitalized and tested for enterovirus, a family of pathogens that in rare cases can cause weakness in the arms and legs.

New York state’s Wadsworth Center and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention would subsequently confirm the worst: The young adult was suffering from paralysis after contracting polio, the first known U.S. case in nearly a decade and the first in New York since 1990.

The patient was unvaccinated.

“I was very surprised. I never thought I’d see a case of polio in the United States, certainly not in Rockland County,” said Dr. Patricia Schnabel Ruppert, the county health commissioner. The CDC considers a single case of paralytic polio a public health emergency in the U.S.

Polio is a devastating, incurable disease that once struck fear into parents’ hearts every summer when transmission peaked, threatening children with paralysis. But the virus has faded from U.S. public consciousness over the decades after a successful vaccination campaign crushed transmission in the 1960s.

In the late 1940s, more than 35,000 people were paralyzed from polio in the U.S. every year, according to the CDC. But the advent of an effective vaccine in 1955 dramatically reduced the spread of the disease to less than 100 cases annually by the 1960s.

The virus had been eliminated from the U.S. by 1979, though sporadic cases that originated abroad have been identified over the years.

How polio reemerged in New York this year remains the subject of investigation, but public health officials believe the virus originated overseas in a country that still uses the oral polio vaccine. American health officials stopped using the oral vaccine more than 20 years ago because it contains live virus that can — in rare circumstances — mutate to become virulent, but it is still common in other countries.

Genetic analysis of New York poliovirus samples indicates a weakened virus strain used in one of the oral vaccines mutated over time to cause the outbreak. Combined with low vaccination rates in some New York communities and greater international travel, this provided an opening for the virus to slip back into the U.S. this year and paralyze the Rockland patient.

“The underlying lesson is this is an infectious disease and it travels easily with population movements,” said Oliver Rosenbauer, a spokesperson for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, the organization that represents the worldwide campaign to eliminate the virus.


October 5, 2022. Tags: , , , . Health care, Parenting. Leave a comment.

This is Racism: Blacks Are Four Times More Likely than Whites to Be Oppressed by Vaccine Mandates

This is Racism: Blacks Are Four Times More Likely than Whites to Be Oppressed by Vaccine Mandates

Critical Race Theory has finally been demonstrated in America, but those who promote CRT wouldn’t dare use this ironclad example.

By JD Rucker

August 13, 2021

Proponents of Critical Race Theory are often caught torturing the numbers to present statistics that match their premises. It’s challenging to demonstrate the effects of so-called “systemic racism” in America because the hard numbers simply do not match the rhetoric. But there is one issue in particular where the numbers do not lie, supporting their CRT claims. Systemic racism does exist in vaccine mandates and the numbers are undeniable.

According to a preprint study published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), minorities are far more likely to be “vaccine hesitant” than White Americans. Comically, the study claims that lack of vaccine access is part of the reason for this, a claim that defies logic at every conceivable level. Someone does not become “vaccine hesitant” because they have less access. If anything, lack of access may make them desire the jabs more.

Illogical conclusions of the study aside, the raw data is telling. Whites are the least hesitant Americans at 7.3%, followed by Asians at 10.0. Both Hispanics (15.6%) and mixed race or other (16.6%) were more than twice as likely to be concerned about the vaccines than their White counterparts. Black Americans are by far the most hesitant with over a quarter, 28.0%, claiming some degree of hesitancy in getting vaccinated for Covid-19.

Across the nation, private businesses are requiring both employees and patrons to show proof of vaccinations. Cities like New York and San Francisco have already initiated vaccine passport requirements for entry into just about any building. Travel is being curtailed for those who have not been vaccinated. Teachers and their unions are demanding vaccine mandates for both staff and students despite the unambiguous fact that children are not at risk from Covid-19 with a nearly 100% of those infected recovering from it.

There is no way to deny that these vaccine mandates will disproportionately affect minorities more than Caucasians. In short, vaccine mandates are blatantly racist.

Why Are Radical Leftists Not Speaking Out Against Vaccine Mandates?

This is it. This is the example of Critical Race Theory in action that radical progressives have been seeking in vain for years. They finally have a case study that is ironclad proof the system is working against minorities, particularly Black Americans, and they’re conspicuously ignoring it. Why? Because CRT may be near the top of their list of concepts to promote, but nothing in 2021 trumps vaccine mandates. Universal injections of experimental drugs is their top priority.

What we are seeing is demonstrable proof that the tenets of Critical Race Theory are driven by White radical progressives. If minorities were driving the narrative, they would latch onto the vaccine mandate statistics in a heartbeat. Why? Because nothing will oppress Black Americans more than vaccine mandates. Not cops. Not the judicial system. Not banks nor schools nor any of the other Critical Race Theory boogeymen. Vaccine mandates are demonstrably racist, but the White radical progressives driving the Critical Race Theory agenda dare not speak out against it as it suits them to punish those who choose medical freedom over tyranny.

It’s ironic that the first real example of systemic racism in modern America is the one topic the radical left dare not bring to light.

August 17, 2021. Tags: , , , , , , . COVID-19, Racism. Leave a comment.

I hope a lot of the anti-vaccine people learn a lesson from this family’s sad experience

‘Anti-vax’ mother’s regret over whooping cough ‘nightmare’

April 6, 2016

An Australian mother has said she regrets refusing the whooping cough vaccination during pregnancy after she passed the potentially fatal infection to her newborn baby.

Cormit Avital said she had turned down the vaccination because she was a “healthy, fit, organic woman”.

She caught the disease shortly before giving birth and passed it to Eva, who has spent a month in intensive care.

Ms Avital recorded a video warning about her “nightmare” experience.

“If I could turn back time I would protect myself,” she said, in the video released by Gold Coast Health, the regional health authority.
‘A lot of suffering’

Ms Avital contracted whooping cough, also known as pertussis, around the time she gave birth, and was told she had passed it to Eva.

Within two weeks, Eva’s cough “became pretty scary, horror movie, coughing to the point of going blue, flopping in my hands, can’t breathe,” she said.

“For a moment there you think they’re dead in your hands. [It’s] a lot of suffering for a tiny little cute thing you love so much.”

What’s behind the ‘anti-vax’ movement?

The mother who is “angry as hell” with anti-vaccination movement

Gold Coast Health Staff Specialist Dr Paul Van Buynder told the BBC that Eva’s condition was improving.

She is likely to be released from hospital in coming weeks.

Dr Buynder said more than 20,000 pertussis cases were recorded in Australia last year, and “sadly this is becoming more common”.

“There’s always a feeling of pregnancy being this special state and you don’t want to put anything into your body, but what’s really bad for your baby is to get whooping cough or influenza”, Dr Buynder added.

Newborns are highly susceptible to the infection until they start vaccination at two months old.

April 12, 2016. Tags: , , , , , , , , , . Health care. 1 comment.